Prokaryote genome sizes
Table 1 references

This reference list for studies reporting prokaryote genome sizes using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (Table 1) was compiled as part of the study reported in:

Islas, S., A. Becerra, P.L. Luisi, and A. Lazcano. (2004). Comparative genomics and the gene complement of a minimal cell. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 34: 243-256.

Abs El-Osta YG, Hillier AJ, Davidson BE, Dobos M. (2002). Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis of the genome of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC33323 and construction of a physical map. Electrophoresis 32 (19): 3321-31.

Akman L & Aksoy S (2001). A novel application of gene arrays: Escherichia coli array provides insight into the biology of the obligate endosimbiont of tsetse flies.PNAS 98(13):7546-51.

Akman L, Río RV, Beard CB, Aksoy S (2001) Genome size determination and coding capacity of Sodalis glossinidius an enteric symbiont of tsetse flies,as revealed by hybridization to Escherichia coli gene arrays. Journal of Bacteriology 183(15): 4517-4525.


Allardet-Servent, A., Carles-Nurit, M,J., Bourg, G., Michaux, S., and Ramuz, M. (1991).  Physical Map of the Brucella mellitensis 16M Chromosome. Journal of Bacteriology 173 (7) 2219-2224.


Allardet-Servent, A., Michaux-Characon, S., Jumas Bilak, E., Karayan, L., and Ramuz, M. (1991) Presence of One Linear and One Circular Chromosome in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 Genome Journal of Bacteriology 175(24):7869-7874.


Alleman A.R., Kamper S.M.Kamper, Vviseshakul N, Barbet A. F. (1993) Analysis of the Anaplasma marginale genome by pulsed-field electrophoresis. J. Gen. Microbiol 139(pt10):2439-44.


Amils,R.,Irazabal,N.,Moreira,D.,Abad,J.P.,Marin,I.(1998).Genomic organization analysis of acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria using field gel electrophoretic techniques.Biochimie. 80(11):911-21. 

Amjad M, Castro JM, Sandoval H, Wu JJ, Yang M, Henner DJ, Piggot PJ. (1991) An SifI restriction map of the Bacillus subtilis 168 genome. Gene 101 (1):15-21.


Bauman C, Judex M, Huber H, Wirth R. (1998) Estimation of genome sizes of hyperthermophiles. Extremophiles 2(2):101-8.


Bautsch W. (1993) A NheI macrorestriction map of the Neisseria meningitidis B1940 genome FEMS Microbiol Lett 107 (2-3):191-7.


Bautsch, W. (1988). Rapid Physical Mapping of the Mycoplasma mobile genome by two-dimensional field invertion gel electrophoresis techniques. Nucleic Acids Research. 16 (24): 11461-11467.

Bergthorsson U. and Ochman H. (1995) Heterogeneity of Genome sizes among Natural isolates of Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology 177(20):5784-5789.

Bigey F, Janbon G, Arnaud A, Galzy P. (1995)Sizing of the Rhodococcus sp R312 Genome by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis . Localization of genes involved in nitrile degradation. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 68:173-79.


Bihlmaier, A., Römling, U., Meyer, T.F., Tümmler and Gibbs, C.P. (1991) Physical and Genetic Map of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain MS11-N198 chromosome. Molecular Microbiology 5 (10): 2529-2539.


Birkelund, S. and Stephens, R.S. (1992). Construction of Physical and Genetic Maps of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar L2 by Pulsed-Field Gel Electorphoresis. Journal of Bacteriology, 174 (9). 2742-2747. 

Bobovnikova Y, Nng WL, Dassrma S, Hackett N (1994) Restriction mapping the genome of Halobacterium halobium strain NRC-1 Syst and Appl Microbiol 16:597-604  


Bolstad , A.I. (1994)Sizing the Fusobacterium nucleatum genome by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis FEMS Microbiol Lett 123(1-2):145-51.


Borges KM, Bergquist PL, (1993) Pulsed Field gel electophoresis study of the genome of Caldocellum saccharolyticum Curr Microbiol 27:15-19.  

Bourget, N., Sominet, J-M and Decaris, B. (1993) Analysis of the Genome of the five Bifidobacterium breve strains: plasmid content, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genome size estimation and rrr loci numeber. FEMS Microbiology Letters 110: 11-20.

Bourke B, Sherman P, Louie H, Hani E, Islur P, Chan VL. (1995)

Physical and genetic map of the genome of Campylobacter upsaliensis. Microbiology 141:2417-24.


Canard, B. And Cole, S.T. (1989) Genome organization of the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 86:6676- 6680.


Carle P, Laigret F, Tully JG, and Bové (1995) Heterogeneity of enomes Sizes within the Genus Spiroplasma .International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 45(1):178-181.


Carlson CR, Kolsto AB. (1993) A complete physical map of a Bacillus thuringiensis chromosome. J.Bacteriol.175:1053-60.


Casjens S, Huang WM (1993) Linear chromosomal physical and genetic map of Borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease agent. Mol Microbiol 8(5):967-80.


Casjens S. (1998) The Diverse and dynamic structure of bacterial genomes Annu. Rev. Genet. 32:339-77.      


Correira A., Martin, J.F., Castro, J.M. (1994) Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the genome of aminoacid producing corynebacteria :chromosome sizes and diversity of restriction patterns. Microbiology 140(Pt10):2841-7.


Crespi M, Messens E, Caplan AB, van Montagu M, Desomer J. (1992)

Fasciation induction by the phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians depends upon a linear plasmid encoding cytokinin synthase gene. EMBO J. 11:795-804 (1) 447.


Chan JW, Goodwin PH (1999) A physical map of the chromosome of Xanthomonas campestris pv.phaseoli var.fuscansBXPF65. FEMS Microbiol Letter 180(1):85-90.


Chang, N. and Taylor, D.E. (1990)   Use of Pulsed Field Agarose Gel Electrophoresis to Size Genomes of Campilobacter Species and to Construct a SalI Map of Campylobacter jejuni UA580 Journal of Bacteriology . 172 (9) 5211-5217.


Charlebois, L..R., Schalkwyk, C.L., Hoffman, D.J., and Doolitle,W.F. (1991) Detailed Physical Map and of Overlapping Clones Covering the Genome of the Archaebacterium Haloferax volcanii DS2 J. Mol. Biol 222: 509-524.


Charles, H; Ishikawa,H (1999) Physical and Genetic Map of the Genome of Buchnera, The Prymary Endosymbiont of the Pea Aphid Acytrosiphon psium J. Mol. Evol .48:142-150.  

Charnock C. (1998)Characterization of phytopathogen Pseudomonas siringae pathovar ribicola NCPPB 963Microbios 94(377):23-34.

Chen, H., Keseler I.M., Shimkets,l.j. (1990) Genome size of Myxococcus xanthus determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Bacteriol 172(8):4206-13.

Chen, X. and Widger,W, R,. (1993)Physical Genome Map of the Uniceellular Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002. Journal of Bacteriology 175 (16) 5106-5116.

Chevalier,B;Dugourd D;Tarasiuk;HarelJ;Gotlschalk M; et al (1998)

Chromosome sizes and phylogenetic relationships between seropyypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae FEMS Microbiol Lett 160(2):209-16.


Chevalier B, Hubert J C and Kammerer (1994)Determination of Cromosome size and number rrn loci in Lactobacillus plantarum by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.FEMS Microbiology Letters 120:51-56.


Chung, J. SU and Baseman J.B . (1990).Genome Size of Mycoplasma genitallium. Journal of Bacteriology 172 (8): 4705-4707.


De Villiers EP, Brayton KA, Zweygarth E, Allsopp BA. (2000)Genome size and genetic map of Cowdria ruminantium.Microbiology 146 (pt10) 2627-2634 (1) 117.


Dean,J.A. and Bazylinski (1999).Genome Analysis of Several Marine Magnetotactic Bacterial Strains by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis.

Current Microbiology 39:219-225.


Dempsey JA, York J, Cannon JG (1993) Characterization of the genome of Acetobacter xylinum by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. absH-64, p 201 In Abstacts of the 93 rd. General meeting of American Society for Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.


Devereux R,Willis SG, Hines ME (1997).Genome sizes of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans,Desulfovibrio vulgaris, and Desulfovibrio propionicus estimated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of linearized chromosomal DNA.Curr Microbiol 34(6):337-9.


Dmitriev A, Suvorov A, Totolian A (1998) Physical and genetic chromosomal maps of Strptococcus agalactiae, serotypes II and III rRNA operon organization.FEMS Microbiol Lett 167(1):33-9.

Dodd HN, Pemberton JM. (1998)Construction of a physical and preliminary genetic map of Aeromonas hydrophyla JMP636 Microbiology 144(Pt 11):3087-3096.

Dudez AM, Chaillou S, Hissler L, Stentz R, Champomier-Verges MC, Alpert CA, Zagorec M.(2002)Physical and genetic map of the Lactobacillus sakei 23K Chromosome Microbiology 148(Pt 2):421-31.


Eiglmeier K, Honore N, Woods SA, Caudron B, Cole ST. (1993)

Use of an ordered cosmid library to deduce the genome organization of Mycobacterium leprae. Mol.Microbiol. 7:197-206.


Ely, B. and Gerardot, C. J. (1993) Use of Pulsed- Field Gel Electrophoretic to construct a physical map of the Caulobacter crescentus genome Gene (1993) 68:323-333. 


Frutos, R.. Pages, M., Bellis, M., Roizes, G.,and Bergoin, M. (1989). Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Determination of the Genome Size of Obligate Intracellular Bacteria Belonging to the genera Chlamydia, Rickettsiella, and Porochlamydia. Journal of Bacteriology 171 (8).4511-4513.           


Fujiwara S, Takagi M, Imanaka T, (1998) Archaeon Pyrococcus kodakaraensis KOD1: Application and Evolution Biotechnol. Annu. Rev. 4:259-84. 

Furihata K, Sato K, Matsumoto H. (1995) Construction of a combined Not I/SamaI Physical and genetic map of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis strain ATCC25238 Microbiol Immunol 39(10): 745-51. 


Gaju N, Pavon V, Marin I,Esteve I, Guerrero R, Amils R.(1996) Chromosome map of the phototrophic bacterium Chromatium vinosum. FEMS. Microbiol. 135(1)ojo checar.


Gasc, A. M., Kauc,L., Barraillé,P., Sicard,M. And Goodgal, S.(1991) Gene localization, size, and physical map of the chromosome of Streptococcus pneumoniae.J.Bacteriol. 173:7361-7367.


Gil R, Sabater-Muñoz B, Latorre A, Silva JF and Moya A. (2002) Extreme Genome reduction in Buchnera spp: Toward the minimal genome needed for symbiotic life.PNAS. 99(7): 4454-4458.

Ginard,M.,Lalucat,J., Tummler,B.,and Romling,U. (1997) Genome Organization of Pseudomonas stutzeri and Resulting Taxonomic and Evolutionary Considerations. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 47(1): 132-143.

Gralton EM, Campbell AL, Neidle EL. (1997) Directed introduction of DNA cleavage sites to produce a high resolution genetic and physical map of the Acinetobacter sp strain ADP 1 (BD413UE) chromosome. Microbiology 143:1345-57. 


Grimsley JK, Masters CI, Clark EP, Minton KW. (1991) Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA double strand breakge and repair in Deinococcus radiodurans and radiosensitive mutant.Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 60: 613-26. 

Gronstad A, Jaroszewicz E, Ito M, Sturr Mg, Kruiwich TA, Kolsto AB. (1998) Physical map of alkaliphilic Bacillus firmus OF4 and detection of a large endogenous plasmid. Extremophiles 2 (4): 447-53.


Grothues, D. , and Tümmler, B., (1991)New approaches in genome analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis application to the analysis of Pseudomonas species. Molecular Microbiology 5 (11) 2763-2776.

Hacioglu E. Basim H, Stall R. (1996). Rarely cutting restriction endonucleases useful for determining genome size and physical map of the chromosome of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv vesicatoria. Phytopathology 86:S 77-S78. 


Hannien M and Hirvi U. (1999). Genetic diversity of canine gastric helicobacters, Helicobacter bizzozeronii and H. salomonis studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.J.Med Microbiol 48(4):341-347.

Hantman, J,M.,Sun, S., Piggot, P.J. and Daneo-Moore, L. (1993)

Chromosome Organization of Streptococcus mutans GS-5. Journal of General Microbiology 139. 67-77. 


Heinzen ,R., Stiegler G.L., Whithing LL., Schmittt, SA Mallavia LP, Fraizer, ME. (1990) Use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis to differentiate Coxiella burnetii strains. Ann N Y Acad Sci 590:504-13.


Hermann T., Wersch G, Uhlemann Em., Schmid R, Burkovski A (1998)

Mapping and identification of Corynebacterium glutamicum protein by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and microsequencing Electrophoresis 19(18):3217-21. 

Hielm S, Bjorkroth J, Hyytia E, Korkeala H (1998)Genomic analysis of Clostridium botulinum group 11 by pulsed-field yeld electrophoresis.

Applied and Enviromental Microbiology. 64(2): 703-708. 

Hobbs MM, Leonardi MJ, Zaretzky FR, Wang TH, Kawula TH. (1996) Organization of the Haemophilus decreyi 35000 chromosome. Microbiology 142: 2587-94.   






Huber H, Hohn MJ, Rachel R, Fuchs T, Wimmer VC, Stetter KO (2002)

A new phylum of Archaea represented by a nanosized hyperthermophilic symbiont. Nature 417(6884):63-7.

Huber I, Slenka-Pobell (1994) Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fingerprinting, genome size estimation and rrn loci number of Rhizobium galgae. J.Appl Bacteriol. 77:528-533 0jo. 


Jalava K, De Ungria M C, O Rourke J, Lee A, Hirvi U, and Hannien M-L. (1999) .Characterization of Helicobacter felis by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Plasmid Profiling and Ribotyping.Helicobacter 4(1): 17-27. 

Jumas-Bilak,E., Michaux-Charachon,S., Bourg,G.,Ramuz,M., and Alardent-Servent (1998) Unconventional genomic organization in the alpha subgroup of the proteobacteria. Journal of Bacteriology 180(10):2749-2755.


Kakulphimp J,Finch LR, Robertson JA. (1991). Genome sizes of mammalian and avian Ureaplasmas Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol 41:326-27. 

Kaneko T, Matasubayashi T, Sugita M,Sugiura. M. (1996) Physical and gene maps of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC6301 genome . Plant Mol. Biol. 31:193-201.


Kaneko T. Sato S,Kotani H, Tanaka A, Asamisu E, et al. (1996) Sequence analysis of the genome of the unicelular Synechocystis sp strain PCC6803II. Sequence determination of the genome and assignment of potential protein-coding regions. DNA Res. 3:109-36.

Kang HL Kang HS,(1998) A physical map of the genome of ethanol fermentative bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 and localization of genes on the map Gene 206(2): 223-8.         .


Karlyshev V A, Henderson J, Ketley M J and Wren W B(1998).An improved physical and genetic map of Campylobacter jejuniNCTC11168 (UA580).Microbiology 144:503-508. 

Kauc, L. And Goodgal, SH. (1989) The size and physical map of the chromosomes of Haemophilus parainfluenzae Gene 83:377-380. 

Keis S, Sullivan T J, Jones T D, (2001) Physical and genetic map of the Clostridium Saccharobutylicum (formerly Clostridium acetobutylicum) NCP262 Chromosome.Microbiology 147: 1909-1922. 

Kieser,M.H.,Kieser,Tand Hopwood,D.(1992) A Combined Genetic and Physical Map of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) Chromosom3

Journal of Bacteriology174(17):5496-ojo. 


Kim JR, Kang BS, Ko JH, Park JS, Kim SJ, Bai GH Chung TH, Nam KS, Choi YK, Choi IS, Chung TW, Lee YC, Kim CH (1996). Genomic heterogeneity in clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M terraecomplex, M gordonae, M avium-intracellulare complex and M fortuitum by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Biochem Mol Biol 29:569-573. 


Kim,N.W.,Bingham,H., Khawaja,R.,Louie, H.,Hani,E.Neote,K., Chan,V.L. (1992)Physical Map of Campylobacter jejuni TGH9011 and localization of 10 genetic markers by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis J.Bacteriol 174(11):3494-8. 


Kolsto, A. Gronstad A., Oppegaard, H. (1990)Physical Map of the Bacillus cereus Chromosome. J. Bacteriol 172:3821-3825.



Kozo Todo, Takatsugu Goto, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Shigeru Akimoto (2002) Physical and genetic map of Finegoldia magna (formerly Peptostreptococcus magnus) ATCC29238 genome. FEMS Microbiology Letters 210:33-37.

Krueger CM, Marks KL Ihler GM. (1995). Physical map of the Bartonella bacilliformis genome J.Bacteriol. 177:7271-74. 


Kundig,Ch.,Hennecke, H., and Gottfert,M.(1993). Correlated physical and genetic map of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum 110 genome. Journal of Bacteriology 175(3):613-622            (1) 636.


Kuritz; T., Ernest,A., Black, A.T., and Wolk C.P. (1993) High-resolution mapping of genetic loci of Anabaena PCC 7120 required for photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. Molecular Microbiology 8 (1):101-110. 


Kuwahara T, Sarker MR, Ugai H, Akimoto S, Shaheduzzaman SM, Nakayama H, Miki T, Ohnishi Y. (2002)Physical and genetic map of the Bacteroides fragilis YCH46 Chromosome FEMS Microbiol Lett 207(2):193-7.

La Fontaine S, Rood JI. (1997) Physical and genetic map of the chromosome of Dichelobacter nodosus strain A198 Gene 184:291-98. 

Ladefoged, S.A. and Christiansen G. (1992).Physical and Genetic Mapping of the Genomes of Five Mycoplasma hominis Strains by Pulsed-Field Gel Electorphoresis. Journal of Bacteriology 174 (7):2199-2207. 

Le Burgeois, P., Mata, M., and Ritzenthaler. (1989) Genome Comparation of Lactococcus strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 59 65-70. 


Leblobd P, Redenbach M.Cullum J (1993) Physical of Streptomyces lividans 66 genome and comparison with that of the related strain Steptomyces coelicolor A3 (2). J Bacteriol 175(11):3422-9           (1) Checar apellido 630.


Leblond,P.Francou FX,Simonet JM;Decaris B.(1990).Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the genome of Streptomyces ambofaciens strains FEMS Microbiol Lett 60(1-2):79-88. 


Lee, J.J Smith HO (1988) Sizing of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome by pulsed-field agarose gel electrophoresis. J.Bacteriol 170(9):4402-5        (1) 216.


Lezhava A, Mizukami T, Kajitani T, Kameoka D, Redenbach M, et al 1995. Physical map of the linear chromosome of Streptomyces griseus. J. Bacteriol.177:6492-98. 


Lim,D.,Trivedi,H.,Nath,k. (1994) Determination of Gardnerella vaginalis genome size by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis DNA Res 1(3):115-22. 


Lima T P, Correia M A (2000) Genetic fingerprinting of Brevibacterium linens by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping.Current Microbiology 41:50-55. 

Lin,W.J., Johnson, E.A., (1995) Genome analysis of Clostridium botulinum TypeA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Appl Environ Microbiol 61(12):4441-7. 


Lin W, Yin G. (2001) Studies on the genome size and structure of Gluconobacter oxydans SCB329 Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 41(5):530-5.

Liu GR, Rahn A, Liu WQ, Sanderson KE, Johnston RN, Liu SL (2002)

The evolving genome of Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum

J.Bacteriol 184(10):2626-33.

Liu SL, Hessel A, Sanderson KE. (1993) The XbaI-BInI-CeuI genome cleavage map of Salmonella enteriditis shows an inversion relative to Salmonella thyphimurium LT2. Mol Microbiol. 10:655-64. 

Liu, SL, Hessel, A., and Sanderson. (1993). Genomic mapping wiyh I-Ceu I, an intron-encoded endonuclease specific for genes for ribosomal RNA, in Salmonella spp.,Escherichia coli, and other bacteria. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:6874-6878. 

Liu SL, Sanderson KE (1995) The chromosome of Salmonella paratyphi A is inverted by recombination between rrnH and rrnG. J Bacteriol 177(22):6585-92. 

López-García P, Amils R and Antón J. (1996).Sizing chromosomes and megaplasmids in haloarchaeaMicrobiology 142:1423-1428. 

Lortal, S., Rouault, A.,Guezenec,S.Gautier M.(1997) Lactobacillus helveticus:strain typing and genome size estimation by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.Current Microbiology 34:180-185. 


Llamas I, Sánchez Mj, Angardoña M, Béjar V, Quesada E, del Moral A. (2002).Analysis of the Genome of the Moderate Halophile Halomonas eurihalina Current Microbiology 45:233-239.

Llucier TS, Brubaker RR. (1992) Determination of genome size, macrorestriction pattern polymorphism, and nonpigmentation-specific deletion in Yersinia pestis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.J. Bacteriol.174:2078-86. 


Majumder, R., Sengupta, S., Khetawat, G., Bhadra, RK., Roychoudhury, S, Das J. (1996)Physical Map of the genome of Vibrio cholerae 569B and localization of genetic markers.J.Bacteriol 178(4): 1105-12. 


Maldonado R, Jimenez J, Casadesus J. (1994) Changes of ploidy during the Azotobacter vinelandii growth cycle.J. Bacteriol 176:3911-19. 


Martín-Didonet, Chubatsu S L, Souza M E, Kleina M, Rego G M, Rigo U L, Yates G M, Pedrosa O . (2000) Genome Structure of the Genus Azospirillum Journal of Bacteriology 182(14): 4113-4116

Matsuda M, Asami Y, Miyazawa T, Sugawara T, Kumano M, Isayama Y, Honda M. (1994) Estimation of the genome of Taylorella equigenitalis by crossed fiel gel electrophoresis. Vet. Res Comm 18:99-102. 


Matsumoto, K., Matsuda, M., and Kaneuchi, Ch. (1992). Analysis of Chromosome-sized DNA form the Bacterial Genome of Thermophilic Campilobacter laridis by Pulsed-Field Gel Electorphoresis. and Physical Maping. Microbios 71: 7-14.


Mellado E, García MT, Nieto JJ, Kaplan S, Ventosa A. (1997) Analysis of the genome of Vibrio costicola: Pulsed field gel electrophoretic analysis of the genome size and plasmid content . Syst. Appl. Microbiol 20: 20-26. 


Mellado, García MT, Roldán E, Nieto JJ, Ventosa A.(1998) Analysis of the genome of the gram-negative moderate halophiles Halomonas and Chromohalobacter by using pulsed-field electrophoresis.Extremophiles 2:435-438.


Méndez-Alvarez et al (1995) Microbiología SEM 11:323-336.

Méndez-Alvarez S. Pavon V, Esteve I, Guerrero R, Gaju N. (1995) Genomic heterogeneity in Chlorobium limicola: Chromosomic and plasmidic differences among strains. FEMS Microbiol. Lett.134:279-85.

Messick JB, Smith G, Berent L, Cooper S. (2000)Genome size of Eperythrozoon suis and hybridization with 16S rRNA geneCan J Microbiol 46(11):1082-1086.

Michaux-Characon S, Bourg G, JumasBilak E, Guigue-Talet P, Allardet-Servent A, et al (1997) Genome structure and phylogeny in the genus Brucella J. Bacteriol. 179:3244-49.

Michel, E. And Cossart, P. (1992) Physical map of the Listeria monocytogenes chromosome. J.Bacteriol.174,7098-7103.


Moreira,M.M., Da Costa,S.M.,Sá-Correira Isabel.(1997) Comparative genomic analysis of isolates beloning to the six species of the genus Thermus using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping Arch Microbiol 168(2):92-101.


Naterstad K, Kolsto AB, Sirevag R.(1995) Physical map of the genome of the green phototrophic bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. J. Bacteriol. 177:5480-84.


Neimark HC, Lange CS.(1990). Pulsed field electrophoresis indicates full length Mycoplasma chromosomes range widely in size. Nucleic Acids. Res. 18:5443-48. 


Neumann B, Pospiech A, Schairer HU. (1992) Size and stability of the genomes of the myxobacteria Stigmatella aurantiaca and Stigmatella erecta. J. Bacteriol. 174:6307-10.


Neuman,B., Pospiech, A., and Urich Schairer, H.(1993) A physical and genetic map of the Stigmatella aurantiaca DW4/3.1 crhomosome. Molecular Microbiology 10(5):1087-1099.

Noll,M.K. 1989 Chromosome Map of thermophilic Archaebacterium Thermococcus celer Journal of Bacteriology 171(12):6720-6725.

Oana K, Okimura Y, Kawakami Y, Hayashida N, Shimosaka M, Okazaki M, Hayashi T, Ohnishi M. (2002)Physical and genetic map of the Enterococcus faecium ATCC19434 and demonstration of intra- and interspecific genomic diversity in enterococci FEMS Microbiol Lett 207(2):133-9.

Ogata K, Aminov RI, Nagamine T, Sugiura M, Tajima K, Mitsumori M, Sekizaki T, Kudo H, Minato H, Benno Y. (1997) Construction of a Fibrobacter succinogenes genomic map and demostration of diversity at the genomic level. Curr Microbiol 35(1):22-7.


Okada,N., Sasakawa, C., Tobe, T., Talukder, K.A.Komatsu, K. And Yoshikawa, M. (1991) Construction of a physical map of the chromosome of Shigella flexneri 2a and direct assigment of nine-virulence associated loci identified by Tn5 insertions Mol. Microbiol.5:2171-80.

Ó Riordan K, Fitzgerald FG (1997)Determination of Genetic diversity within the genus Bifidobacterium and estimation of chromosomal size

FEMS Microbiology Letters.156:259-264.

O`Sullivan TF, Fitzgerald GF, (1998) Comparison of Streptococcus thermophilus stains by pulsed field geld electrophoresis of genomic DNA. FEMS Microbiol Lett 168(2):213-9

Park,JH., Song,JC., Kim, MH., Lee, DS., Kim, CH. .(1994) Determination of genome size and preliminary physical map of an extreme alkaliphile, Micrococcus sp. Y-1, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresisMicrobiology 140(Pt9):2247-50.


Philipp WJ, Gordon S, Telenti A and Cole T S. (1998) Pulsed field gel electrophoresis for Mycobacteria Methods Mol Biol 101:51-63.


Philipp WJ, Nair S, Guglielmi G, Laggranderie M Gicquel B, Cole ST. (1996) Physical mapping of Mycobacterium bovis BCG pasteur reveals differences from genome map of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and M. Bovis. Microbiology 142:315-45.


Philipp WJ., Poulet S, Eiglmeier K, Pascopella L, Balasubramanian V, et al. (1996) A integrated map of the genome of tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and comparison with Mycobacterium leprae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:3132-37.


Pisabarro A, Correira A, Martin F. (1998). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis of genome of Rhodococcus fascians : genome size and linear and circular replicon composition in virulent and avirulent straisn. Curr Microbiol 36 (5):302-8.

133.-   Pradella S, Hippe H, Stackebrandt E (1998) Macrorestriction analysis of Desulfurella acetivorans and Desulfurella multipotens. FEMS Mycrobiology Letters 159:137-144.

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Prokaryote Genome Size Database
Animal Genome Size Database