This page provides an up to the minute summary of data currently available in the database. Parameters reported include minimum and maximum reported genomes sizes (in picograms), mean genomes sizes with standard error (SE), total number of species assayed, and the methods, cell types, and standards used for all available records. Note that the statistics reported here are based on all records in the database -- for maximum reliability, you are encouraged to evaluate the data for your particular group of interest directly. Note also that these C-value summaries do not currently account for instances of polyploidy (though this will be updated in the future).
Because these statistics refer to the database as a whole, they must be cited as follows if used in a publication:
Please select your group of interest from the list:
(Other invertebrate groups are insufficiently represented for summary stats)
|Number of amphibians:||504|
|Smallest amphibians genome size:||0.95pg, Limnodynastes ornatus, Ornate burrowing frog|
|Largest amphibian genome size:||120.60pg, Necturus lewisi, Gulf coast waterdog|
|Mean for amphibians:||18.14pg ± 0.83|
|Number of frogs:||284|
|Smallest frog genome size:||0.95pg, Limnodynastes ornatus, Ornate burrowing frog|
|Largest frog genome size:||13.40pg, Ceratophrys ornata (8n), Ornate horned frog|
|Mean for frogs:||4.68pg ± 0.13|
(Note: A value of 19pg was reported for the round frog Arenophryne rotunda by Morescalchi (1990), who cites “Mahony, Phil. D. Thesis, 1986” as the source. This high value is not due to polyploidy (2n = 24), nor is this likely to be a typographical error (i.e., 19 vs 1.9pg). However, since no further details of Mahony’s thesis were given, it has not been possible to confirm this value.)
|Number of salamanders:||217|
|Smallest salamander genome size:||10.12pg, Gyrinophilus porphyriticus, Spring salamander|
|Largest salamander genome size:||120.60pg, Necturus lewisi, Gulf coast waterdog|
|Mean for salamanders:||35.90pg ± 1.05|
- No overlap in genome size ranges between frogs and salamanders.
- Positive correlation with red blood cell and nucleus sizes in both frogs and salamanders (Olmo and Morescalchi 1975, 1978; Olmo 1983; Gregory 2001a).
- Negative correlation with developmental rate in many groups (see Gregory 2002b for review).
- Negative correlation with brain complexity in both frogs and salamanders (e.g., Roth et al. 1994; see additional references listed in Gregory 2002b).
- No strong relationship with metabolic rate in either frogs or salamanders (Licht and Lowcock 1991; Gregory 2003a).
- Association with intensity and frequency of metamorphosis (Gregory 2002b).
- Polyploidy is relatively common in amphibians (Gregory and Mable 2005).
- Genome sizes are secondarily increased in amphibians, as shown by fossil cell size data (Thomson and Muraszko 1978).
- Vinogradov (2005) suggested that the largest amphibian (and lungfish) genome size is only 80pg, but he neglected to consider the Necturus spp. measurements noted above.
- Click here for the amphibian data page.
Summary of Methods, Cell Types, and Standard Species for Amphibians
|Biochemical Analysis (BCA)||20||2.16%|
|Feulgen Densitometry (FD)||568||61.27%|
|Feulgen Image Analysis Densitometry (FIA)||21||2.27%|
|Flow Cytometry (FCM)||256||27.62%|
|Not Specified (NS)||20||2.16%|
|Static Cell Fluorometry (SCF)||38||4.10%|
|Ultraviolet Microscopy (UVM)||4||0.43%|
Cell Types (code)
|Kidney cells (KC)||11||1.17%|
|Not specified (NS)||21||2.23%|
|Red blood cells (RBC)||759||80.74%|
Standard Species (code, C-value)
|Ambystoma jeffersonianum (AJ, 28.80pg)||19||1.58%|
|Ambystoma laterale (AL, 29.20pg)||52||4.31%|
|Aneides lugubris (ANL, 45.10pg)||1||0.08%|
|Bufo bufo (BB, 6.00pg)||2||0.17%|
|Bufo fowleri (BF, 5.10pg)||5||0.41%|
|Bufo ictericus (BI, 2.90pg)||2||0.17%|
|Bufo marinus (BM, 4.00pg)||16||1.33%|
|Bufo paracnemis (BP, 3.30pg)||34||2.82%|
|Bufo terrestris (BT, 5.00pg)||7||0.58%|
|Cyprinus carpio (CP, 1.70pg)||2||0.17%|
|Gallus domesticus (GD, 1.25pg)||63||5.22%|
|Homo sapiens (HS, 3.50pg)||232||19.24%|
|Mus musculus (MM, 3.30pg)||2||0.17%|
|Oncorhynchus mykiss (OM, 2.60pg)||8||0.66%|
|Plethodon cinereus (PC, 23.10pg)||19||1.58%|
|Pleurodeles waltl (PW, 22.60pg)||60||4.98%|
|Rana esculenta (RE, 6.00pg)||134||11.11%|
|Rana pipiens (RP, 6.70pg)||118||9.78%|
|Rana temporaria (RT, 4.30pg)||68||5.64%|
|Xenopus laevis (XL, 3.15pg)||150||12.44%|